MARC H — 1 952
Volume XIII Price 15 Cents
Photo by Harold M. Lambert Studios
With the approach of spring and warm-
ing clays the urge to venture out-of-doors
once more becomes irresistible.
Published by VIRGINIA COMMISSION OF CAME AND INLAND FISHERIES, Richmond 13, Virginia
A Monthly Magazine for Higher Standards of Outdoor Recreation Through Wildlife Conservation
COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA
JOHN S. BATTLE, Governor
Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries
B. W. STRAS. Jr., Chairman, Tazewell, Va.
CHAS. D. ANDREWS. SutTolk, Va. Or. E. C. NETTLES, Wakefield, Va.
FRANK P. BURTON. Stuart. Va. Dr. WM. T. PUGH. Lynchburo, Va.
WM. C. GLOTH. Jr., Arlington, Va. Dr. W. B. RAINS. Warsaw, Va.
T. G. HERRING, RFD, Dayton, Va. T. D. WATKINS, Midlothian, Va.
IT. QUINN, E.ccuti.e Director
P Box 1442, Richmond, Vo.
C. F. Phelps
G. W. Buller
M. W. Kesterson
Miss L B. Loyne
J. J. Shomon
J. J. Shomon, Editor
R. R. Bowers, Associate Editor L. G. Kesteloo, Photography
F. S. McDaniel, Circulation
In This Issue
Who Wants A Biologist 4
Federal Aid in Fish and Game Work of
the Southern States 5
Before the Dogwood Blooms 8
Let's Plant Those Idle Acres 10
Coon Huntin' 14-15
The Congo Eel 16
Virginia's Historic Garden Week 18
Virginia Inland Fish Series 20
Virginia Game Bird Series 21
Drumming Log 23
Field Force Notes 24
School Page 26
Commission Directory 27
A pair of southern flying squirrels are caught by the
high speed camera, as they began their night time
activities in search of food and frolic.
Commismon photo by L. G. Kesteloo
VIRGINIA WILDLIFE gratefully receives for consideration all news items,
articles, photographs, sketches and other materials which deal with the use,
management and study of Virginia's interrelated, renewable natural resources:
SOILS CONSERVE WATER
Since wildlife is a beneficiary of the work done by State and Federal land-use
agencies in Virginia, editorial policy provides for recognition of their accomplish-
ments and solicitation of their contributions. Credit is given on material published.
Permission to reprint is granted provided proper credit is given.
SUBSCRIPTIONS: One Year. $1.00; two years, $1.30; three years,
$2.00. Remittances by check or money order to be made payable
to the Treasurer of Virginia. Local game wardens will accept sub-
scriptions or they may be forwarded direct to Commission of Came
and Inland Fisheries, 7 North Second Street, P. O. Box 1642,
Richmond 13, Virginia.
Entered as second class mail matter November 10, 194", at the Post Office at
Richmond, Virginia, under the Act of Augrust 24, 1912.,
WHO WANTS A BIOLOGIST?
By MAURICE BROOKS
Member, Conservation Commission of West Virginia Professor Brooks
THIS QUESTION, sarcastically asked, was a sub-head in a recent article by an outdoor writer whose
stories are carried in a number of West Virginia newspapers.
Well, the question, phrased as it was, made me mad, as I hope it did a good many others who
are genuinely devoted to the cause of conservation in the state. The anglers of West Virginia (and
the hunters, too) had better want biologists. If the remnants of our fish and wildlife are to be
saved from encroaching civilization, it will be by the help and guidance of men who are trained to
preserve them. Unless we have the aid of trained biologists, those who love the rod and gun will find
their sport (in West Virginia at least) a disappearing and dying thing.
Who are these fish and wildlife biologists? Young men, for the most part, who have lived in the
woods or along the streams, and who have so abiding a love for the outdoors and its resources that
they have chosen to devote their lives to its betterment. They find their sport, even as many others
do, in fishing and hunting, and they will hold their own with the experts when it comes to filling
bag or creel. They differ from other sportsmen in that they must either do a good job, or be out
of one. For them, improved hunting and fishing is not a matter of sentiment alone — it is also their
bread and butter.
Doctors, so we are told, make mistakes, and bury them. Yet when you and I get sick we call a doc-
tor. I donH see many newspaper columnists attacking the medical profession. Lawyers can^t all
be right, since someone has to lose cases, but when we get tangled up with the law we want the best
legal advice available. We have had preaching for a good many years, yet rumor has it that some
sinning remains in the dark corners. Still, not many people are calling for the abolishment of the
ministry. The profession of wildlife or fish biologist is new, and its followers, like other human
beings, have made their mistakes. Nevertheless, in correcting the mess that others of us have made
of our natural resources, they are our one final hope.
The biologist, by discovering hitherto unknown facts of life history and habits, has made the Ten-
nessee Valley lakes an angler's wonderland. Closer home, the fish biologists are showing us how to
manage our newly-constructed farm ponds so as to secure phenomenal yields. I have just returned
from a trip through our mountains, and have seen, first hand, some of the plans already drawn for
improving our trout streams. The good work is going forward, but it is not being helped by those who
choose to belittle it.
It is cheap and easy to make fun of people whose ideas differ from our own. Any writer or speak-
er can secure a following of sorts by deriding the "technicians." Yet, I am firmly convinced that
those who do so are not serving the sport which they profess to love. The right to criticize is in-
alienable, but arguing by personalities is the way of Communists and Nazis. It has no place among
a people who cherish good sportsmanship.
Who wants a biologist? I, for one, want the best we can get, and I pray God that other citizens
of West Virginia will agree.
— Courtesy of West Viryinia Conseri-ation
Federal Aid in
Fish and Game Work
of the Southern States
FROM VIRGINIA, Kentucky, and Arkansas on
southward to the Gulf is our Southeastern Re-
gion. Here, in a chmate that is benign for man
and beast are the many forms of wildhfe that lure
the lucky dweller of this land into the field. Scratch
the surface of any community in the South and
you'll turn up a lot of folks ready to quit and go
fishing or grab the gun. But sometimes it looks
like the hunters are increasing lots faster than the
game. Then, the fish and game department catches
heck from the sportsman. Here's where Federal
Aid puts its shoulder to the
In wildlife language Federal
Aid means the Pittman-Robert-
son game program, now 13
years old, and the Dingell-John-
son fish program which started
this year. Both channel much-
needed funds into our state fish
and game departments. This
year the P-R (Pittman-Robert-
son) tax on sporting arms and
ammunition brought to our re-
gion over three million dollars
of federal money. Virginia's
cut was more than $318,000.
The D-J (Dingell-Johnson)
tax on sporting fishing tackle
brought almost a half million
dollars to the region and over
40 thousand dollars to Virginia.
From these funds the states finance 75% of the
cost of their Federal Aid projects.
The transfusion of these annual grants into the
fiscal veins of our state game departments gave them
a new vitality. Before P-R, our state game activities
were almost wholly limited to law enforcement and
quail hatcheries. But the P-R "shot-in-the-arm"
brought a new era of technical game management.
Lands were purchased and developed with food and
cover. Deer and turkey were stocked on ranges
where these species had long been absent. Research
projects were carried out to show the proper meth-
By CLARENCE W. WATSON-
The source of federal aid monies
ods. Staffs of wildlife technicians were acquired to do
the work. The "business" of game management in
our region was born — a rather anemic infant at first
but now a lusty youth of much promise. Land has
been purchased with P-R funds in large tracts and
in all of our states except one. To date, 377,500
acres of game lands have been acquired, and this
continues at a rapid pace. Individual tracts run as
high as 100 square miles in area. For the most part,
they are designed to restored deer, turkey, quail, and
waterfowl, and to provide places where the public
can hunt these species. The
prices paid for such lands aver-
aged six dollars per acre. Most
of them would sell now for
several times the purchase price.
Moreover, receipts from timber,
farm crops, and other products
compatible with wildlife man-
agement can frequently to a
large degree pay for the game
The acquisition and develop-
ment of a statewide system of
game-management areas for
public hunting is an increasing-
ly popular use of P-R funds.
However, limited funds and
greater difficulty in consolidat-
ing large holdings curtails the
acquisition of state-owned lands
for public hunting. So now,
the states are entering into agreements with large
private timberland operators to develop the game
and control its harvest on such lands. The owner
gets protection from fire and trespass. The state
gets the right to stock game, protect it, develop food
and cover, and control hunting. It's a good deal for
both parties. Similar cooperative agreements with
the U.S. Forest Service, TVA, Army Engineers,
and the Soil Conservation Service make large game
land areas available to state fish and game depart-
ments. The operating projects usually involve P-R
and they affect about seven million acres in this
CiiiiimisHion iiliotii hii I.. C. Ki:<ti hio
The acqui^itiun and development of a J^latevvide sys-
tem of game management areas for public hunting
is an increasingly popular use of Pittman-Robertson
Photo by Arkansas Fish and Game Conimissiun
Planting of bicolor and sericea lespedezas is carried
out through Pittman-Robertson in all the South-
eastern states projects.
Compared with quail, deer restoration is relatively
simple. Restocking and protection are rapidly bring-
ing deer back in the Southeast.
Photo h}j Amrriran AJn^^rum of Natural History
Southeastern Region. For the most part, such areas
are devoted to deer and turkey management. Squir-
rels are another angle, and in some states the ruffed
grouse comes into the picture.
Some effort has been made in six states to provide
quail lands, by purchase or lease, for public hunting.
Florida's 65,000-acre Charlotte County project is
the outstanding example. Purchased, studied, and
developed with P-R funds, this is a successful public
quail area. But, the acreage required to satisfy a quail
hunter and the development costs entailed are far
greater than the amount of land and money needed
to satisfy the deer or turkey hunter. Each quail
hunter wants to shoot several bags of quail during
the season. Deer hunters are satisfied if one hunter
out of four or even ten kills a deer on one hunt
per year. Consequently, public shooting grounds
for quail are few in number. They are valuable
to demonstrate eflScient quail management prac-
tices. However, as far as quail go, most of our states
prefer to invest their P-R dollars in farm game
Since our quail are, for the most part, associated
with farming areas, any statewide quail improve-
ment program must deal with the problem of how
to improve quail production on thousands of farms
throughout the state. To be successful, any practice
must have a dual value. It must increase the carry-
ing-capacity of the land for quail and at the same
time appeal to the farmer as being beneficial and
practical for his farm. To reconcile these two re-
quirements is far from easy.
At present, the planting of perennial lespedezas —
sericea and bicolor — on field borders is the favored
practice. The sericea furnishes good quail cover.
Bicolor is an excellent food. Both plants improve
the soil and control erosion. Moreover, the sericea
makes good forage and hay. This type of project
is conducted under P-R in all of the Southeastern
States. Last year these particular projects cost about
one-half million dollars and borders amounting to
a total length of 2,700 miles were planted. Quail
use of these lespedeza strips is very high. However,
we need to know to what extent the plantings ac-
tually increase the numbers of quail on a farm. P-R
research projects in four states are studying this
Compared with the quail problem, deer restora-
tion is relatively simple. Restocking and protec-
tion are rapidly bringing deer back in the South-
east. Between 1920-1930 our deer were at their
lowest numbers. In many parts of the South people
had never seen a deer. Thanks to restocking proj-
ects, the deer is again becoming a familiar animal.
Under P-R projects about 10 thousand of them
have been stocked in depleted ranges. Arkansas and
Virginia have been most successful in restoring good
deer hunting to their sportsmen.
Throughout the Southeast deer stocking is a major
activity. The animals are secured either by purchase
outside of the state or by live-trapping within the
state. Most of our states live-trap where deer are
plentiful, but they purchase deer to supplement the
numbers. Arkansas has had much success with deer
trapping. One year they obtained over 500 animals
at a cost of $15 each. Virginia has done an excel-
lent job with purchased deer. In any event, deer
are increasing throughout the South and the current
population of one-half million might well be raised
to three million with proper restoration measures.
Keen interest is devoted in all of our states to P-R
turkey restoration projects. These involve the stock-
ing and protection of turkey refuges accompanied
by the planting of favored foods. In most states
wild birds are trapped where plentiful and trans-
ferred to special areas. Well over 600 such birds
have been trapped and relocated. Virginia's annual
turkey liberations are the largest in our region. A
high quality of pen-raised bird is used. Louisiana
also releases large numbers of pen-raised turkeys,
purchasing them from dealers in Pennsylvania and
West Virginia. Where obtainable the truly wild
turkey is to be preferred. The pen-raised birds show
some promise, but their value in restocking remains
to be proven.
The eastern wild turkey is much more difficult
to increase than is the whitetail deer. Turkeys are
more demanding of wide range, of freedom from
disturbance, and of suitable habitat. Valuable re-
search in Alabama and Virginia has pointed out some
effective measures to be used with turkeys. How-
ever, we are still far from an understanding of the
bird's essential needs. The turkey population of the
Southeast is now estimated at about 140,000 birds.
They are said to be increasing in Florida, Kentucky,
and Mississippi. North Carolina reports a decreas-
ing population, and some states are doubtful. A
note of optimism is struck in the adaptability of the
bird to a land use economy in which timber produc-
tion and cattle raising are combined. Turkey pop-
ulations are high on large timberland holdings of
this type in southern Alabama. A P-R research
project in this section is now studying this situation.
All of our states are interested in waterfowl.
Through P-R survey projects a regionwide search
has been made for areas suitable for development as
refuges and hunting grounds for ducks and geese.
(CoHtiimed oii page 22)
Commission photo by L. G. Kesteloo
Keen interest is shown in Pittnian-Robertson turkey
restoration work in all the Southeastern states. Vir-
ginia's annual liberations are the largest in the region.
I'hoto by Arkansas Fish and (•
V^irginia has acquired the excellent Hog Island Refuge
on the James River as a development and holding
area for waterfowl.
The Southeastern states now have 20 fisheries proj-
ects approved under the new Dingell- Johnson fish res-
toration program. Many are research projects.
Photo By James E. May
Comm,ission photos by Kesteloo
Long before the swollen, biscuit- shaped buds of the dogwood burst into bloom, kids and oldsters alike begin
fishing for panfish.
March is the month of awakening — of moods — for both fishermen and fish.
For maximum early spring enjoyment why not try your hand at panfishing
THE ANGLER'S URGE, really a sort of pleasant
rash, breaks out among Virginia's fresh-water
fishermen long before the first buds of spring.
Just a few sunny days, and small boys start to bend
pins and get sewing cotton from their mothers to
fashion fishing tackle. Long before the first dog-
wood blooms, when one can go barefooted and go
swimming, the fish worms are doing business.
Many of the grownups have stayed up late in
the winter nights tinkering with feathered contri-
vances, or studying the latest theories about how
to string worms on a hook, or how a grasshopper
can be made to look like a grasshopper that hasn't
got a hook in it. The rash gets them all, youngsters
and grownups alike. They are all itching to get
out after what we commonly call panfish.
Just let the thin ice around the edges disappear,
and they'll be out. The panfish stir early, and so
do the fishermen. Just let the temperature of the
water come up a degree or two, and the panfish
start looking around for spawning places. They
are hungry and will snatch a meal while doing so.
Silver perch or crappie are among the first of our
panfishes to leave their winter quarters.
When we go out in early spring for panfish, we
normally think in terms of the sunfishes, of which
there are many variants. Bass, bream, longeared
sunfish, yellow-bellies, silver perch, flier and the
warmouth, all are sunfishes. Ring or yellow perch,
which also stir early, are the best-known members
of the true perch family. Blue-nosed perch, land-
locked in many of the ponds, is a salt-water fellow,
as are the grand big shad which come into fresh
water to spawn.
Early in the spring many also go out with dough-
balls, chicken innards and other enticements for
carp and catfish, which can hardly be classed as
panfish. Then there is the fallfish which grows big
in our eastern Virginia streams and will take any
kind of lure a trout will take, and the eastern chain
pickerel, which we call pike, but which too is not
Bluegill bream are perhaps the most sought-after
of the panfishes. They are numerous, and they are
cooperative. Silver perch, or crappie, where they
are plentiful, run a close second. Both of these fine
species of panfish start moving around long before
the dogwoods are anywhere near in bloom. They
stay deep until the water becomes really warm —
warmer than ice-cold — and the hosts of Virginia
anglers know what to do about it.
They fish with natural baits, and fish them deep,
until the fish actually make their way into the
shallows. For silver perch, they give the little min-
now a workout. Some of the ultra-smart anglers
rig up an outfit and cut the line above the cork.
If a silver perch takes the minnow, he will prob-
ably swim back where there are others of his kind,
for silver perch, in springtime, are almost always
found in schools.
The angler for bluegills expects to find them deep
when the waters are still icy and lays his plans
accordingly. How delightful it is when he finds
that the bluegills have actually left the dark re-
cesses and are acting up in the shallows, as they
are counted upon to do later. The fly fisherman
sticks to his wet flies — with maybe spinners ahead
of them — until the day arrives, to his' delight, when
he finds that the bluegills will rise to the surface
The day may come earlier than we think, when
the panfish will be acting up as they will unques-
tionably be doing a little later, depending upon
whether there is an early or late spring. Warmth
means a lot more to fish than to fishermen. Lots
of the anglers will be out with their duck-hunting
parkas coming in handy. The urge to go fishing
is strong upon us.
When we gather up our fishing tackle in early
Typical scene is this freckled faced youngster out for
an early session with the prince of panfish.
spring, nobody is thinking in terms of bass or moun-
tain trout, for there are certain periods in which
they are protected in their spawning, and nobody
wants particularly to catch them except when going
specifically for them in legal season. The panfish
are interesting enough. And let's not forget the
branch minnow, which has probably caused more
delight among more small boys than any other fish
And speaking of branch minnows, and panfish
in general, one of the most vivid recollections of
this writer's early life was when he and another
boy planned a horse-and-buggy trip to the South
Anna River. Plenty of effort was expended in
advance in getting the necessary minnows from the
spring branches for bait. Alas, the river was muddy
and we couldn't fish in it at all. So we got out the
frying pan and a few strips of bacon we had brought
along. Our bait minnows proved about as savory
morsels as we have ever tasted since.
While early spring fishing has its fascinations for
all conceivable varieties of fishermen, it is particu-
larly attractive to the hordes of anglers who have
taken up fly fishing. Lots of these fellows have been
practicing casting, tying knots, or even fashioning
their own lures during the winter and they are
champing at the bit for a chance to try out their
Some take off their wet flies when results are dis-
appointing and substitute a hook and a gob of
worms. This will make fish leave home if nothing
else will. But the water has got to be mighty cold
for panfish not to be interested in a well-tied and
well-manipulated wet fly. One of white or with
white in it, resembling the belly of a little minnow
moving through the water, is a logical enticement.
But, perversely, a solid black fly is deadly for bream
in early season. Nobody knows what a bream thinks
a black gnat is.
The waters soon warm up in our climate, and the
panfish find their nesting places and start sweeping
out their spawning beds. It is then that the fly
fisherman with surface lures has the picnic of his life.
It is not covering too much territory to declare
that little surface bugs or dry flies properly fished
under these conditions will come nearer providing
a mess of fish than any other scheme we know of,
with the possible exception of a net.
The spinning outfit, coming more and more into
common usage, is at its maximum of usefulness in
fishing for the panfish in early spring. A lot of
water can be covered with the wet fly or spinner,
and the same can be said of the devices employed
(Continued on page 22)
Within 15 to 20 feet of a woodland there is a sapped
strip of land which returns little or nothing in crop
yields. If planted to bicolor, it will pay its way in
Bv ROBERT R. BOWERS
Commission photos by L. G. Kesteloo
TRADITIONALLY, the state of Virginia is a
farming state, boasting of some 175,000 farms
that encompass well over 2 5 ,000,000 acres of land.
That's a lot of acreage — sure. But do you realize
that nearly 700,000 of these acres are going to waste
— idle acres serving no useful purpose. Idle land
is a symbol of waste, and so often, a testimony of
abuse. It denotes poor land management, and adds
nothing to farm income. It is a shameful commen-
tary upon our way of life. If we are ever to realize
the full potential of our Virginia farmlands, then
these idle acres must be put into production and
made to work.
Even the most uninformed novice can readily rec-
ognize eroded fields, decaying farms, and barren
lands, but it takes a "bit of lookin' " to see the less
obvious forms of idle acres on the farm. If you're
a landowner, and expect all of your land to pay
dividends, then it would be well for you to survey
your land with more than a passing glance. Your
precious time and energy may be spent cultivating,
planting, and harvesting crops, hardly sufficient to
pay for the time and energy allotted to their nurture.
To bring out the point, let's take an average farm
and look it over more closely.
On farms where cropfields border woodlands
there is a sapped out strip of soil that returns, in crop
yields, exactly nothing. Then there is that strip of
land between the fence and the road, which is usual-
ly cut to the ground for beauty's sake. This is
waste, and although this area once held but a rab-
bit or a covey of quail, it now holds nothing. Then
again, many odd areas, serving no useful purpose in
the way of adding to farm income, are cropped
or burned. Why? Neat, fertile farms, trimmed to
the bone of all natural vegetation are as barren of
wildlife as eroded unfertile acres. Wouldn't it be
better to leave these wildlife havens as they are, or
better still, plant them to food and cover plants and
have a rabbit or a covey of quail than to have a neat
looking farm with nothing on it in the way of wild-
life? Life itself is beautiful, especially life that
moves. Variety breaks the monotony of life. What
better way could this monotony be broken than by
the thrill-packed scattering of a covey of birds or
the sight of the wily cottontail bouncing across the
You may ask, well, what does this mean to me?
How am I concerned? Every acre of idle land
put into vegetation is one more acre protected
against erosion, and, planted eroded areas become
productive once more. But if you plant that acre,
why not do it with a type of plant that serves a
double purpose, with plants that not only prevent
erosion but also provide excellent food and cover
for birds and rabbits. Vegetation is nature's own
weapon against soil erosion. Man has yet to find
a better one.
If you live in the Southeast, and you want to make
an investment in quail and rabbits, you can do it
without taking a single acre out of crop production.
All you need do is plant those idle acres. What
should you plant? Well, why not plant bicolor
lespedeza and/or sericea lespedeza, separately or in
combination, since they have proven excellent wild-
life foods in Virginia. Simple? Of course, it is;
and where growth begins it will give you a feeling
of self-satisfaction when you begin to see those idle
acres once more in production. A pound of rabbit
or a pound of quail is just as filling and just as tasty
as the best corn-fed pork, or beef grown on the
most fertile of pastures, and that rabbit or quail
will be coming from land which at the present time
is producing nothing. You pay taxes on that land.
Why not have it pay you back?
How To Get Plants
The Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries
furnishes wildlife planting material to interested
landowners and sportsmen in the state each spring.
Through its Pittman-Robertson farm game pro-
gram the materials are furnished, without charge,
in order that the idle lands may again serve a worth-
while use in the form of producing an increased
wildlife crop, quail and rabbits in particular. All
that the Commission asks of the landowner is that
the seeds and plants which are supplied be planted
and cared for in such a way as to produce the max-
imum benefits to wildlife.
The Commission, in cooperation with the Soil
Conservation Districts throughout the state, is in-
terested in helping landowners, sportsmen, and all
interested groups to improve the food and cover for
wildlife by planting wildlife borders and food
patches. It is only through such a program that
permanent improvements can be made in wildlife
habitat. More food and cover means more game
for the hunter and fewer acres of idle land.
Planting material can be obtained by making ap-
plication with your local soil conservationist, county
agricultural agent, county game warden, or dis-
trict game technician. These men will see that the
materials are delivered to you in time for planting
Technical advice on where and how to plant is given
free of charge by the Commission's game technician.
and soil conservationists.
in the spring. February 15 was the deadline for
applications for planting material this spring, but
it is not too late to survey your land for locations
which can be planted next spring.
Plants Available Upon Request
The Commission makes an assortment of plants
and seeds available to the public upon request; some
of which are shrub lespedeza plants and seeds, sericea
lespedeza seeds, wildlife seed mixture, composed of
soya beans, cow peas, millet, milo, and Korean les-
pedeza, and milo maize.
Ranking highest among these plants, as to wild-
life benefits, are shrub lespedeza and sericea lespedeza.
These two plants have proven their worth through-
out the Southeast as dependable quail and rabbit
food and cover plants, and they are preferred by
most biologists who have charge of making wildlife
Where and How To Plant
Soil conservationists surveyed 3,500 fields in the
Southeast and found that for an average distance
of 33 feet from woodland edges the land produced
less than half the normal crop. An average strip
of land 12 feet wide was uncultivated, thus a strip
21 feet wide has been plowed, planted, and fer-
tilized, which did not even return enough to pay
for the money and time spent on its preparation.
A border of legumes planted in such a situation
will have utility for the farmer and improve con-
ditions for quail and rabbits. Its main values are
that it will prevent erosion in field margins and
provide a space in which to turn implements at the
end of the field. The thick growth of legumes pre-
A Hnishe<l product. Culti\alcd crop;* gro>* up to the
hicolor, and the hicolor forms a buffer zone between
the woodland and the field.
Idle area8 between woods and farm ponds can be effectively planted to bicolor lespedeza, thus enhauciug es-
thetic, recreational, and wildlife values.
vents the spread of shrubs from the woods into the
A fifteen-foot strip of shrub lespedeza (Lespedeza
bicolor) makes an excellent border for woodlands.
If crop rows extend into it, the border should be
widened by an additional fifteen-foot row of sericea
lespedeza. Farm machinery can be turned on the
sericea and it may be cut for hay. Bicolor makes a
shrub 10 feet tall under favorable conditions.
Virginians who are interested, and want to invest
in quail, should plant a 400-foot strip (5 rows 3
feet apart) of bicolor along any brushy cover or
through open pine woodlands. Biologists of the Soil
Conservation Service have determined that this is
about the size planting (one-eighth acre) required
to support an average covey. Eroded gullies, cut
over lands, and idle fields likewise present outstand-
ing opportunities for landowners to increase the
production of their lands by planting erosion-con-
trol wildlife plants.
To plant an eroded gully is to put antiseptic on
a wound, in the hope that it may heal quickly. All
of us know that we cannot do our best work when
we're sick — well, neither can the land. Sick land
makes sick people. Think what it would mean
if every farm in Virginia — 175,000 of them — de-
voted but one acre each to wildlife food plantings!
Spread out in one-eighth acre plots, and figuring
the amount required for each covey of quail, this
would mean 1,400,000 plantings throughout the
state. And let's suppose each planting was made on
land prone to erosion or on eroded land. Could it
be that soon there would be sufficient "birds" for
all to hunt? And could it be that our rivers might
flow clear again? Maybe such thinking is too far-
fetched, but then who can say that it cannot be ac-
complished unless an attempt is made. Surely it is
worth trying. If you're one of those landowners
who has an extra acre or two that's just idling away,
or that's beginning to show the fuzz of erosion,
why not do something about it this spring. What
have you to lose? Nothing. To gain — everything.
Be it farm crops or wildlife crops, every acre should
be in production. So let's plant those idle acres.
CONSERVATION LICENSE PLATE ATTACHMENT OFFERED BY COMMISSION
The Virginia Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries is offering a beautiful multi-colored conservation license plate
attachment as a premium for two new one-year subscriptions to Virginia Wildlife, or one iietc three-year subscription.
This offer will become effective March 1, 1952, and will expire on June 1, 1952.
Late Wildlife News ... At A Glance
FINAL TALLY ON STATE'S DEER- BEAR- TURKEY KILL R ECEIVED; A final report on the total kills of
deer, bear, and turkey in Virginia during the 1951-52 hunting season has been compiled.
The total deer kill in the entire State was 7514, with 4089 killed in the area east of the
Blue Ridge, and 3425 killed west of the Blue Ridge. Sussex County led in the east with 650
deer, and Southampton County ran second with 322. Augusta County led in the west with
541 kills, and Shenandoah County ran a close second with 512.
There were 2129 turkeys bagged in Virginia, with Buckingham County out in front with 143
kills. Spotsylvania County was second with 121. Along with these reports came figures
on the bear-kill, which was 148 for the entire state.
POWHATAN STEPS FORWARD IN WILDLIFE CONSERVATIO N: Realizing the pressing need for the conser-
vation of our wildlife resources, the Powhatan County Board of Supervisors, at a morn-
ing session February 4, appropriated funds to purchase a tractor and a bush and bog disc,
for the sole purpose of aiding landowners make food and cover plantings for wildlife, ac-
cording to C. P. Montgomery, conservation of ficer for the Commission.
The board, made up of Wyatt Sanders, Mart
to take this action by conservation offic
sentative of the House of Delegates, and
Board of Supervisors will cooperate with
which will furnish the planting material
instructions and general advice on the pr
of Supervisors not only represents a step
likewise shows the development in the thi
problems of wildlife and the place it holds
in Michaux, and Sam Bonifant, was encouraged
er C. P. Montgomery, E. F. Yates, former repre-
others interested in wildlife conservation. The
the Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries,
s for the wildlife plantings , and they will give
j ect . This action by the Powhatan County Board
forward in actual wildlife conservation, but
nking and consciousness of Virginians to the
in the economy of any wise land-use program.
RABIES IN VIRGINIA H IGHES T SINCE 1944: "During 1951 Virginia had its highest incidence of ra-
bies since 1944, with a total of 223 cases of animal rabies reported, " according to a re-
cent report submitted to the Commission by Dr. Mack I. Shanholts, State Health Commis-
It is generally known that the dog is the most common transmitter of rabies, but the oc-
currence of the virus in foxes makes it of particular significance in the wildlife field.
Sections hardest hit during the past year were Fauquier and Loudoun counties in north-
ern Virginia; Lee, Washington and Wythe counties in southern Virginia ; and the City of
Richmond. With this report comes startling information from the State Health Depart-
ment that 1952 is well on its way to being another bad year for rabies in Virginia. During
January, 26 cases of positive rabid foxes were reported from the three northern counties
of Fauquier, Loudoun, and Warren. One case has been reported, thus far, from Wythe County.
It is interesting to note that during 1951 there were 38 cases of rabid foxes reported
from Fauquier County ; six were reported during last January. There were 19 cases in Loud-
oun County in 1951 ; in January there were six. And during 1951 there were two cases re-
ported in Warren County, and in January there were 14. The majority of foxes found rabid
have been grays, but some were reds. Many more cases of rabid foxes have been reported
but the figures listed are only those definitely proven rabid by the State Health Depart-
ESSAY CONTEST GOAL OF 100 COUNTIES NEARED TOP: Over 225 schools, from 91 of Virginia's 100 coun-
ties, entered the 1951-52 Fifth Annual Wildlife Essay Contest jointly sponsored by the
Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries and the Virginia Division of the Izaak Walton
League of America. Officials had hoped that 100 per cent of Virginia's counties would
have at least one school entry before the contest closed February 28. The 90 counties rep-
resented in the contest showed a notable increase over the 56 counties which were repre-
sented in the essay contest last year. Contest officials of the Commission and the League
believe that the Conservation Essay Contest, now in its fifth successful year, is one of
the soundest methods of getting conservation across to our young citizenry — and urged
teachers and parents to have their children enter.
For Pleasure and Conservation
Each year for a number of years the
Tidewater Coon Hunters Association has
hunted raccoons for recreation and for
the profit to the state. Captured ^ coons
are turned over to the Commission for
restocking in parts of the state which
have little or no ^coon population.
Commission photott hii Kesteloo
■ '■ "^i^'V
4. Muck an<l dehris make up a great part of the swaii>
where the 'coons live, and this man walks cautiously.
Some equipment used in capturing 'coons alive,
such as tree climbers, nets, cage,
and hip hoots.
9. Sometime later the 'coon is transferred
1 a fr<
to a car and given a free ride to its new
6. Climhing the tree after dark is risky business. Hunter
proceeds slowly as excitement mounts.
7. Bill Murphy, association mem!>er, takes 'coon from
cage and transfers it into holding crate
A remarkable member of the Virginia fauna.
By JOHN THORNTON WOOD
Commission photos by Kesteloo
Head and body of Congo eel.
FISHERMEN of the fresh-water swamps, ponds,
and streams of southeastern Virginia sometimes
encounter a bizarre, snake-shaped creature with
the shmy skin of an eel, and four extremely short
legs. When they try to find out what they have
caught, they get a variety of answers, for the Congo
eel is also known as the poison eel, deaf adder, ditch
eel, black eel, blind eel, lamper eel, and Serpent of
the Congo. All of these names show that people
think the Congo eel is either some type of eel or
snake. It is neither fish nor reptile, — it is an am-
phibian! This is the class of animals which include
the frogs, toads, and salamanders. It is Virginia's
longest salamander, exceeding the "Hellbender" of
the southwestern counties by more than a foot, to
reach a maximum length of more than three feet.
Fishermen often are told that Congo eels are poi-
sonous, but this is a myth. Congo eels feed by cor-
nering crayfish in their burrows, and also on carrion,
but have no venom apparatus to assist in the capture
of their prey. This doesn't mean that Congo eels
are harmless, for they have small sharp teeth. When
fighting for their lives, after being pulled out of
a swamp pool by hook and line, they thrash violent-
ly, and try to bite the nearest object. One Congo
eel wound was reported to have been so severe that
it left a scar which remained for seven years. Such
wounds are rare, though, and cautious fishermen run
little risk of this type of injury. Congo eels mind
their business and don't look for trouble; the re-
ported bites were caused by cornered or injured
These snake-shaped giant salamanders live in
swamps, ponds, and ditches. They are rarely found
in muddy waters, but occur in "black" waters of
cypress areas like Lake Drummond in the Dismal
Swamp. They are now known from nine southeast-
ern Virginia counties: Brunswick, Elizabeth City,
Greensville, James City, Nansemond, Norfolk,
Prince George, Princess Anne, and Warwick. They
have been reported from Chesterfield and Gooch-
land counties, but these records are not backed by
preserved specimens. The Goochland record is
probably in error. They may be expected in Surry,
Sussex, Southampton, Isle of Wight, and possibly in
York counties. Virginia Congo eels are reported liv-
ing in crayfish burrows on stream bottoms, and are
also found in swamps under logs, among cypress
roots, and in dense weed patches. By day they remain
under cover, concealed from their enemies. By
night they can often be found in large numbers in
some states. They have never been found in large
numbers in Virginia.
Little is known about the feeding of these crea-
tures, but enough to assure fishermen that they don't
thrive on game fish. Apparently their chief food
consists of crayfish, but worms, small clams, and
frogs are also eaten. They probably eat whatever
they can catch, and in captivity have eaten young
bowfin. Captive Congo eels in the biology depart-
ment at the College of William and Mary have fed
Dorsal view of Congo eel (left). Ventral view of
the salamander (right).
on beef for years. In these days of inflated prices
horsemeat was offered the eels as a substitute, and
the eels would snap up the horsemeat, hold it in
their jaws without attempting to swallow it, then
spit it out and refuse to feed until strips of beef
Congo eels live many years. Their life span in
a laboratory tank is not good evidence of their
normal life span, for they are protected from their
enemies, the mud snakes. In captivity one Congo
eel lived for 26 years; the two at William and
Mary have survived in the biology department for
16 years, and were full grown when they were do-
nated in November of 1935.
Congo eels reproduce like other salamanders. Fer-
tilization is internal, and several months after fer-
tilization eggs are laid. In North Carolina, strings
of eggs have been found in July. The mass of eggs
is as large as a man's fist, and is usually under a log
or stump in a temporarily dried-up swampy area.
The egg-mass consists of two long strings of eggs,
each from four to eight feet in length. Individual
eggs are the size of large peas, and are spaced about
a half-inch apart on the string. No nests are known
to have been found in Virginia, but when one is
found it is probable that the female will be found
coiled around the eggs.
Ann Headlee, secretary in Commission's education
division, feeds a Congo eel its weekly ration of pork
liver. (Circle) Eel strikes hard at strip of liver.
Early observers described the "voice" of the
Congo eel, calling it the first voice developed in the
animals with backbones. Scientists today regard
the sound produced by the Congo eel as accidental,
resulting from their sudden expulsion of air as they
are lifted from water. This rush of air, forced
through openings in the sides of their heads, produces
a sort of whistling chirp.
The widely-used name blind eel suggests the wide-
spread belief that these salamanders are blind. This
is probably true of adults, although younger speci-
mens have better developed eyes. Even in adults
the eyes are still active as light detectors, helping the
eel to determine when it is safe to come out of hiding
to hunt a meal.
Adult Congo eels breathe with lungs like all the
reptiles, birds, and mammals. Larval Congo eels
obtain oxygen from water with gills the way fish
do. It is usual for larval amphibians to differ from
adults in this striking manner.
Congo eels are caught by fishermen, or by "ditch-
ers" working near swamps. Scientists seeking them
have their best luck when searching at night using
jacklights. One observer reports success in luring
them from crayfish holes by wiggling his finger in
front of the entrance! Congo eels have so little
sight it is not likely the finger was observed, but the
slight disturbance of the water may explain why this
odd technique works. Most Congo eels for scientific
use are gigged with sharpened prongs carefully
being passed on either side of the backbone to avoid
fatal injury to the animal. In this type of collecting
one is cautioned to wear heavy gloves.
Folks who try to handle Congo eels know what
"slippery as an eel" means. It is nearly impossible
to hang on to one bare-handed. The result is almost
always the same, — the eel shoots itself through one's
hands like water squirting through a hose. They are
much easier to hang on to with cotton gloves than
with bare hands.
Specimens are needed to give us a better under-
standing of their distribution and life history. Two
large eel-like salamanders are found in southeastern
Virginia — the one that grows longest is the Congo
eel, which has no gills protruding from the sides of
its head in its adult stage. The other salamander,
mud siren, has large gills as an adult. If you catch
either one, you can add to the data on these unusual
animals by dropping me a card telling where, when,
and how you caught the specimen, how it behaved,
its length, and whether or not it had gills extending
from the sides of its head.
(Editor's note: The author's address is John Thornton Wood, University
of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.)
WOMEN IN CONSERVATION
Windsor Shades, located between Central Garage and
West Point, is believed to have been Ruffin's Tavern,
of which George Washington wrote. Built in 1740
by a member of the RufRn family. At the entrance
is the site of Ruffin's Ferry.
I^HE PASSAGE of the years has not obliterated
much of the tangible as well as the intangible
beauty and nobility of Virginia's great past. De-
spite the growth of business and industry in the Old
Dominion, large and handsome estates, with their
spacious homes and gardens, have lived through
decades, and some even through centuries since they
were established. Approximately 250 of the old
and young estates in Virginia will be open during
Historic Garden Week, April 26-May 3, which is be-
ing sponsored by The Garden Club of Virginia.
The Northern Neck is probably offering more
"first time" places than any other section.
One of the especially interesting homes here is
"Kendall Hall," at the head of Carter's Creek. It
was built in the early 1920's and is of Spanish archi-
tecture. Owners are Mr. and Mrs. Thomas D. Mc-
Not far from Warsaw is "Epping Forest," birth-
place of Mary Ball, mother of George Washington.
The west side of the house which one sees today is
much the same as it was when Mary Ball lived there.
The mantels, wainscoting, and over-door transoms
are unchanged. The smokehouse, laundry, and ice-
house are original buildings. The foundations of
the old kitchen and slave quarters can be seen. The
east side of the home was added in 1842. Further
changes were made in 1904. Until 1834, when it
was purchased by the Jesse family, "Epping Forest"
was successively owned by the Balls, Dowmans,
Chinns, and Mitchells. It is now the property of
James D. and Eoline Ball Jesse.
By ELIZABETH H. SMITH
Photos by Phil Fournoy, V.S.C.C.
It was at "Epping Forest" that Col. Richard H.
Lee wrote a letter to the War Office in Richmond
September 5, 1781, only a few weeks before Corn-
wallis' surrender at Yorktown, making recommen-
dations for efforts to clear pirates from the waters
off the Northern Neck. Lee's long letter includes
the following: "It seems very probable that many
vessels will be captured from the enemy by the
French fleet, that may be purchased from them, and
which will suit admirably for cruizing in the Bay,
and within the mouths of our rivers, to suppress the
piratical practices that will undoubtedly commence
again so soon as the French fleet goes away."
Visitors to Alexandria will recall that this old
seaport town grew so rapidly in the early days that
at one time it was larger than the New York of
that day. In Alexandria was drafted the "Fairfax
County Resolves," the formal protest against Eng-
lish rule. Here Washington took command of the
Colonial troops, and it was here that in 1799 he re-
viewed the local troops and gave his last military
Many famous old houses in Alexandria will be
open. One of them is a Flounder House, now owned
by Mrs. Charles Rollins. It was the home of John
Fitzgerald, a colonel in the Revolutionary Army and
one time mayor of the town.
One may see homes of several doctors who were
famous in their time. These homes include that of
Dr. William Brown, physician general and director
of hospitals for the Continental Army, author of
the first American Pharmacopoeia, a vestryman of
Chelsea, located near West Point, was built by Au-
gustine and Moore in 1709. Here in 1716 Governor
Spotswood organized the Knights of the Golden
Horseshoe and proceeded on his memorable trip to
the Blue Ridge.
Christ Church, and a leader in education; the home
of Dr. James Craik, who was at the deathbeds of
both George and Martha Washington, and the home
of Dr. Ehsha Dick, health officer for Alexandria
during the yellow fever epidemic and consultant
with Dr. Craik during Washington's last illness.
The Fauquier-Loudoun area includes among its
offerings "Oatlands," about six miles from Leesburg,
built in 1800 by George Carter, son of Robert Carter
of "Nomini Hall." In 1903 "Oatlands" became
the property of Mrs. William Corcoran Eustis and
the late Mr. Eustis. Mrs. Eustis is the daughter of
the late Levi P. Morton, minister to France from
1881 to 188 5 and vice-president of the United States
from 1889 to 1893. The house is of Georgian ar-
chitecture. The octagonal drawing room and the
great hall are of special architectural interest, hav-
ing unusually fine cornices and woodwork. This
is the first time "Oatlands" house has been open
during Historic Garden Week.
"Morven Park," in Loudoun County, was built
about 1825 by Gov. Thomas Swann of Maryland
and purchased in 1903 by Westmoreland Davis who
later became governor of Virginia.
The original house at "Prospect Hill," near War-
renton, was built at the turn of the Nineteenth Cen-
tury by Chief Justice John Marshall for his eldest
son, Jacquelin Ambler Marshall. It was destroyed
by fire in 1933 during the occupancy of the present
owners. Col. and Mrs. William E. Doeller. Adjacent
to this site a new house was erected in 1934-3 5.
The basic motifs of design were taken from historic
Bacon's Castle on the James River. Old brick from
the original house was used in its construction. The
house contains old English crystal chandeliers, pan-
eled rooms, old doors, locks, and hinges, and from
the house of Queen Anne in Hanover Square a fly-
Fredericksburg, one of the most historic places
in Virginia, is the site of many reminders of the
city's illustrious past.
One of these reminders is "Kenmore," home of
Col. Fielding Lewis and his wife, Betty, who was
the sister of George Washington. Much of the suc-
cess of the American Revolution is credited to the
sacrifices of this couple. So heavy were the debts
incurred by Lewis on behalf of his government
during the Revolution that he was never able to pay
off the mortagage on his lovely estate. Records in-
dicate, however, that the place never actually passed
out of the hands of the family until after the death
of Colonel and Mrs. Lewis.
"Kenmore" is spacious and magnificent, both
in its construction and furnishings. Its exquisite
ceilings, designed by Washington, have been com-
pared by the National Geographic Magazine with
those of the Palace of Versailles.
Richmond, which has played a prominent part
in American history since Capt. Christopher New-
port and his party landed at the site of Richmond
in 1607 until the present, offers far too much of in-
terest for outline in detail here. On Richmond's
Capitol Hill convenes the oldest continuously meet-
ing legislative body in the New World. Not far
away are the home of Chief Justice John Marshall,
the White House of the Confederacy, St. Paul's
Episcopal Church where Confederate President Jef-
ferson Davis was worshiping when he received the
message from Gen. Robert E. Lee that Richmond
would have to be evacuated.
On Church Hill in St. John's Episcopal Church
where Patrick Henry made his inflammatory speech,
whose "Give me liberty or give me death" portion
is quoted often. "The Lee House" and "Virginia
House," shrines owned by the Virginia Historical
Society, and many other shrines, will be open.
A few miles west of Richmond is "Tuckahoe
Plantation," the boyhood home of Thomas Jefferson.
The interior includes some of the finest hand-carv-
ing and paneling to be found in America. Its fur-
niture is Eighteenth Century.
Beyond "Tuckahoe Plantation" is "Sabot Hill
Farm." The Georgian house is built on the site of
the old residence of James A. Seddon, Confederate
Secretary of War. Its Chippendale wallpaper was
hand-painted in China. There are Eighteenth Cen-
tury locks, with original keys, throughout.
(Continued on page 22)
THE CHAIN PICKEREL
UrjANNIBALS OF THE DEEP" might well de-
li scribe the fast moving, voracious, chain pick-
erel, for from the time it reaches three-inches
in length it feeds upon its brothers and sisters, as
well as all of the other neighboring species of fish.
Few fish, regardless of size, seem to be too small or
too big for the pickerel to tackle.
The pickerel is primarily a lake fish but occa-
sionally is found in slow-moving rivers and streams.
It prefers the denser cover like deep holes or pockets
in weed beds, or around submerged logs and along
the edges of rushes and pads. It is found mainly along
the Atlantic coast, as far north as Maine, but also
is caught as far west as Texas.
While this fish is a member of the pike family
and is often called a pike in many localities, it is
not a true pike that many people have in mind,
such as the pike perch. No doubt the reason is be-
cause of the similarity of shape.
One sure way to distinguish the pickerel from oth-
er members of the pike family is by the scaling on the
sides of the head. The pickerels have the cheeks
and the gill covers completely scaled; the northern
pike has completely scaled cheeks but only the upper
half of the gill covers; the musky has scales only on
the upper halves of the cheeks and gill covers.
The spawning period occurs in the spring, usually
from March to April, depending upon the tem-
perature of the water. The eggs are deposited,
without any prepared nest, among the weeds, brush,
or limbs in the shallow water near the shore. The
eggs come forth in long strings, and the number
may range from 1,500 to 3,000, depending on the
size of the fish. The incubation period is about
When on the feed, the chain pickerel will have
a try at anything that has motion. Mainly, it de-
vours minnows, frogs, insects, salamanders, and any
small fish that happen upon the scene when it feels
the urge to eat. This cannibalistic tendency makes
artificial propagation extremely difficult.
This fish sometimes attains a size of thirty-three
inches or more and a weight of eight pounds. The
general average size runs around fifteen to eighteen
inches, depending upon the water inhabited and the
food conditions available. The official world's rec-
ord is 10 pounds 10 ounces and was caught in
Quebec in 1 93 5 . It takes four years for the pickerel
to grow to a length of 12 inches.
Comparatively few anglers become addicted to
pickerel fishing because it is seldom hair-raising,
tackle-busting sport. Neither is brook trout fish-
ing with a cane pole. But to a sportman on the
operational end of light terminal tackle, the pickerel
can be a sporting fish comparable with some of the
THE CANADA GOOSE
(Branta canadensis canadensis)
THE RESONANT HONK of the Canada goose
remains as one of the few hnks between our
modern age of machines and the age of new-
frontiers and wilderness hving. S© inspiring is the
"call of the wild goose" that poets and writers of
song and fiction alike have drawn heavily upon it
to set the scene of wild and far-away places. Rare
is the man who has heard wild geese pass overhead
without a tinge of nostalgia and an urge to go with
them on their spring migratory flight to the north
The Canada goose is the largest of our six species
of geese, measuring from 3 5 to 43 inches in length
and weighing up to 14 pounds. It arrives in Vir-
ginia in early October and remains here until
Swimming on the surfaces of quiet waters in
stately fashion, this three-foot honker maintains a
constant air of dignity. It feeds on vegetation
growing on the bottom of shallow ponds by bend-
ing its long neck under the surface. As it plucks
the greenery from beneath the water-surface it
virtually stands on its head, and its tail is all that
protrudes from the water. However, the Canada
goose is largely a grain and grass feeder.
These big birds breed in the prairie provinces of
Canada and the northern central states, and winter
from southern Canada through the United States
and into Mexico.
Normally the mother goose hatches her five to
nine eggs while father gander stands by protectively.
He will lay down his life in defense of his family.
As quickly as the young geese are hatched they are
able to walk about and swim, at which time both
parents begin to molt.
Geese, like floods, forest fires, and erosion, are
little concerned with boundary lines, whether they
be international, national, state or private. They
are no more concerned with the Canada-American
boundary line than they are with the boundary line
between the properties of Joe Brown and John
Jones. Where there is food, water, and protection,
they will be found. We, here in Virginia, almost
lost the brant, when the eel grass, the main food in
the diet of the brant, was killed out by a blight.
However, with the return of the eel grass, the num-
bers of brant increased such that last year Virginia
held the first brant season in several years. It il-
lustrates a point to be considered. The brant was
once found by the thousands on the Eastern Shore,
but then, practically overnight, it became scarce.
The same thing could happen to the Canada goose,
or to any of our waterfowl species. Take away its
food, drain or burn the marshes, pollute its waters,
or fail to protect it properly, and it too could go the
way of the brant. It could happen if we should
relax our conservation efforts.
(Continued from page 7)
Virginia has acquired the excellent Hog Island Ref-
uge on the James River. Tennessee and Alabama are
bringing ducks and geese back to the TVA reser-
voirs. Arkansas has purchased a splendid 40,000-
acre area in the timbered bottomlands of the Bayou
Meto to serve for public hunting of ducks, deer,
turkey, and squirrels.
There is no other kind of game restoration proj-
ect nearly so impressive as a waterfowl project.
Spectacular flights of ducks and geese on an attrac-
tive marsh are evidence of success which wins in-
stant public acclaim. Duck hunting is generally
possible only for the club member or owner of
good shooting property. There is urgent need for
some areas in every state where waterfowl properties
are managed for public shooting. These are slowly
but surely being provided through P-R projects.
Fundamental to the management of our game re-
sources are the many and varied research projects
which have been conducted in the Southeast by
P-R. The results show how to increase the game and
how to control the harvest through wise hunting
regulations. To produce a better automobile or an
atomic bomb requires the "know-how" which is
provided by research. We need the same, common-
sense approach in game and fish management.
I am happy to say that, with the impressive ac-
complishments of P-R we can now look forward
to a similar record in the new Dingell-Johnson fish
restoration work. Our states have 20 fisheries proj-
ects approved. Many are research projects. They
deal with streams, farm ponds, small lakes, and big
reservoirs. Some will control rough fish and others
will eliminate water hyacinth. Trout in the cold
waters of mountain streams and in the tail-waters
of deep reservoirs will be the subject of investiga-
tion. More know-how leads to better fishing, and
that's what we all hope for.
BEFORE THE DOGWOOD BLOOMS
(Continued from page 9)
in casting very light lures with the conventional
types of casting rods. When the fish start "looking
up," and taking surface lures, the fly rod is incom-
Where to go to usher in the spring fishing season
has been determined by most of us in advance. The
average city person would be amazed at the num-
bers of men, women, and children who line the
banks of the rivers and creeks of the state just as
soon as it warms up even a little bit.
It's panfish that most of these people are after
and, luckily, there are plenty of them in Virginia's
waters. The mood is for the little fishes, and who
cares about the whales and piscatorial behemoths?
The urge for the first nibble, or the first flashing
strike is in the blood of a lot more Virginia people
than one might suppose.
There are a lot of manias that possess us once
in a while. The opening of the baseball season, or
the football season! Or the hunting season! The lid
off for the bass season and the trout season! None
of these get quite so completely in the blood of
the average Virginian as open weather in early spring
and the expeditions to the fishing waters.
(Continued from page 19)
Lower James River Plantations, North Side, in-
clude "Riverview Farm," "Shirley," "Berkeley,"
"Westover," and "Evelynton."
Plantations on the Lower James, South Side, in-
clude "Brandon," "Upper Brandon," "Eastover,"
and "Smith's Fort Plantation." The house on the
last named place was built in 165 2 on land given
by Powhatan to John Rolfe upon his marriage to
Pocahontas. The grounds were restored by The
Garden Club of Virginia. The owner is the Asso-
ciation for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities.
Among the offerings in the Gloucester-Mathews
District is "Elmington," home of Thomas Dixon
who wrote many of his books there. The present
house was built in 1848 by John Tabb of White
Marsh as a wedding gift to his son. Dr. John Prosser
Tabb. Dixon remodeled it in the late 1890's. The
estate is noted for its magnificent magnolias and
broad lawn which sweeps to the North River.
It was on the Eastern Shore of Virginia that the
first permanent English settlers first set foot on the
North American continent. One of that band
of Englishmen was Thomas Savage who later made
his home on the Eastern Shore. On part of the tract
of several thousand acres given him by Debedeavon,
"Laughing King" of the Indians, was built, in 1799,
"Elkington," near Eastville. Its panehng and scenic
blocked wallpaper are of special interest, and its
furniture is in keeping with Eastern Shore tradition
of Colonial times.
Space here will not permit a description of all the
homes, churches, and other shrines which await
visitors during Historic Garden Week. However
additional information about any of these places
may be obtained by writing to Historic Garden
Week, Room 3, Hotel Jefferson, Richmond 19, Vir-
HOMES FOR WILDLIFE
"Woodsman, spare that den
tree!" is suggested by the tag re-
produced here, which the directors
of the Benzie (Michigan) Soil Con-
servation District provide for land-
Because woodland and wildlife
areas make up over 40 per cent of
the planned land use in the district,
wildlife management is highly im-
portant. The district recommends
that an average of two den trees per
acre be left standing — hollow trees
which are now or may become the
homes of squirrels, raccoons, a va-
riety of birds, and other wildlife.
The tags are used by technicians,
the county agent, directors, land-
owners, and others to mark trees
that should be left for den trees in
the process of working out the com-
plete farm plan.
The directors of the District —
Donald Gray, Verne Hopkins. Ells-
worth Esch, Roscoe O'Blenis, and
Eugene Stone — have wildlife and
woodland management interests, as
evidenced by their five farms, to-
taling 2,400 acres, of which 1,011
acres, or 42 per cent of the land,
are classified as woodland and wild-
LEAVE THIS FOR
Benzie Soil Conservation District
THE JAMES RIVER
While on vacation in Goshen
Pass, I rambled through my copy
of "The James River Basin" and by
chance stumbled on the geology
section. In imagination I boarded
the plane with Professor Stowe and
followed the James River from its
humble birthplace on the side of a
ridge in Highland County, on its
long winding trek for 335 miles past
Covington, Clifton Forge, Iron Gate,
Eagle Rock, Buchanan, Big Island,
Lynchburg, Bent Creek, Scottsville,
Bremo Bluff, Rock Castle, Rich-
mond and on into the ocean at
Hampton Roads. The trip was so
exciting and breath-taking that I
decided to do some rambling on my
CaniTnission photo h>i Shonion
The upper reaches of the James
Then the thought occurred, why
not visit that humble spring-house
on yon mountainside that was the
beginning of Virginia's largest and
longest river within state lines, and
watch it as a bouncing baby brook
start its long journey to the Atlan-
So we went over the mountain
from Goshen and finally reached the
quiet little county seat of Monterey.
There we followed Route 250 as it
climbed another mountain and then
dropped down into the Blue Grass
district and Hightown. Believe it
or not, Hightown has the highest
elevation of any postal town in Vir-
ginia. About a half mile past High-
town, 250 swings to the right as it
continues on to West Virginia.
Straight ahead on the ridge, before
the road turns, is a barn. 'Tis said
that the water falling from the left
side of the roof flows into the James
and from the right side into the
In the field on the left is a spring-
house covering the real headwaters
of the mighty James. A short dis-
tance away is another spring, which
is the beginning of the Potomac
As I watched the cold ci'ystal clear
waters gushing from that spring on
the left of the road and starting
down through the pasture, a mere
branch easily stepped over, I
thought of it at Newport News with
the 41^-mile James River Bridge
That's it, folks. I had seen the
birthplace of the James and found
that "Little spring branches into
mighty rivers grow."
— "Scally" Maurice
DR. CLARENCE W. WATSON, Fed-
eral Aid HI Fish and Game Work
of the Southern States, is federal aid
supervisor, southeastern section. Fish
&WildHfe Service, Atlanta, Ga.
JOHN H. GWATHMEY, Before The
Dogwood Blooms, is rod and gun
editor, Richmond Times Dispatch.
ROBERT R. BOWERS, Let's Plant
Those Idle Acres, is chief of publicity
and publications section, education
division, Virginia Commission of
Game and Inland Fisheries, and as-
sociate editor of Virginia Wildlife.
JOHN THORNTON WOOD, The
Congo Eel, prominent Virginian
biologist associated with the Uni-
versity of Virginia, Charlottesville.
ELIZABETH H. SMITH, Virginia's
Historic Garden Week, is the fea-
ture writer for The Garden Club
of Virginia, Richmond.
Youths Aid in Conviction of Dynamiters
Warden Duval Conner of Appomattox County re-
cently reported the results of a dynamiting case in
his county. Some time ago three violators were ob-
served dynamiting fish on Rack Island Creek. The
incident was reported to Warden Conner, and, after
some fruitful detective work, the offenders were ar-
rested and summoned to court.
In trial justice court the violators were fined $200
each, in addition to costs. However, the entire case
was appealed to circuit court of Appomattox County.
At this circuit court, in early December, the judge
fined each of the dynamiters $200 and costs, making
a total fine of over $700. In addition, each of the
men was required to serve an immediate 30 day jail
sentence. Jail sentences have been served and fines
and costs have been paid.
The significant part of the entire case was the fact
that two young boys had witnessed the violation, and
had the moral courage to give the information to
warden Conner. How many adult sportsmen would
have done the same under similar circumstances?
Squirrels Have Feelings Too
The following is a true account of an incident
that happened December 24, 1951, in Surry County,
on the property of the Southwark Hunt Club, sub-
mitted by William B. Trafton, Portsmouth, Virginia.
"Mr. Kent Bamette and I were squirrel hunting
on Christmas Eve. After hunting all morning we
returned to our automobile to eat lunch and to de-
posit our kill of squirrels. Both he and I placed
our game in the trunk of the car, Mr. Bamette also
put his shotgun in the trunk along with the squirrels.
We then sat down to eat lunch. While eating we
heard a noise in the car, which we paid Uttle atten-
tion to, at first, but after hearing it again and each
time a little louder we decided to investigate. Upon
opening the trunk we found a squirrel, which had
apparently been only stunned, now very much alive.
That squirrel had chewed up the stock of an L. C.
Smith double something awful. Needless to say,
when we got through with him after this he was more
than stunned. We couldn't find any reason for that
squirrel trying to eat the gun unless he just didn't
want us shooting any more of his brothers and sis-
10,000 Valley Students in Soil Projects,
Supervisors Live the Way They Preach
The youth of today will be the caretakers of the
No one realizes this better than the supervisors in
Virginia's Lord Fairfax Soil Conservation District.
For the past six or seven years they have sponsored a
soil conservation program for the 10,000 boys and
girls in the schools of the district with increasing par-
ticipation from year to year.
"Youth molds its future as it saves the soil by
which we live" proved to be one of the most mo-
tivating themes. Pupils have used in class rooms of
some 40 schools more than 25,000 pieces of soil
conservation literature. They have distributed much
of this literature to the 5,000 farm homes and to
others of the district from year to year. About 20 per
cent of the farmers have, in cooperation with the
district, developed soil and water conservation plans
for their farms.
Pupils were responsible for the planting of almost
200 wildlife borders to shrubs and trees the past
spring. Their slogans: "Wildlife needs the help of
the 10,000 boys and girls in the schools of the dis-
trict. Wildlife borders for erosion control and
more and better wildlife habitats on farms of the
Active in the conservation program in the district
are supervisor Bryan A. Hepner, Maurertown, who
Photo courtesy S. C. S.
Students from Slrasburg School were but a fraction of the
10,000 boys and girls from 40 schools cooperating with the
Lord Fairfax Soil Conservation District to save soils, waters,
practices what he preaches in the field; Elmer Rich-
ards, the Game Commission's technician in the dis-
trict; and E. C. Koontz, district soil conservationist
for the Lord Fairfax Soil Conservation District.
Chickahominy Bass Aid Relaxation
Tom Robinson of the Virginia Peninsula Sports-
man's Association, Hampton, Virginia, went fishing
Photo by TotH IvofnnsKni
Eight bass taken by Tom Robinson, of Hampton, from the
Chickahominy. The largest (center) weighed 7^ pounds.
in the Chickahominy last December just for the relax-
ation. The bass were very cooperative in helping him
relax, as shown by the picture. He caught eight bass,
with the three largest ones weighing 7^ pounds, 4^4
pounds, and 4 pounds, respectively. Not a bad way
to relax, we'd sav.
Photo by Leonard A. harnirr
Panel of experts. Reading from left to right: Byron Rudacille,
William J. Coifman, J. W. Simpson, E. Keith Monnington,
Webb Midyette, Claude Jones, moderator, and conservation
officer Fred Hottle.
Midyette, Guest of Warren County
During a weekly radio program sponsored by the
Warren County Fish and Game Protective Association
of Front Royal, Virginia, in cooperation with Bill's
Sporting Goods Store of Front Royal, Webb Midyette,
supervising warden of the northwest district, appeared
as a guest and answered questions regarding the set-
up and operation of the Game Commission.
This panel of "experts" answers questions, sub-
mitted by mail or telephone, pertaining to hunting,
fishing, game and fish laws, and conservation in gen-
The panel is made up of personnel from the War-
ren County Game and Fish Protective Association
and on each program there is a guest who discusses
some particular phase of natural resource use and
1952 Food and Cover Contest
The Prince William County Chapter of the Izaak
Walton League of America is sponsoring a contest
to reward those who plant and cultivate the best food
and cover patches for game birds in Prince William
County during 1952. The contest is an important
part of the program of the county chapter of the
Izaak Walton League to improve living conditions
for wildlife in that county.
Entrants should be prepared to plant not less
than one-eighth of an acre. The patch should be
located next to woods or a fence-row. It should not
be located inside a grazing area, as cattle will eat the
plants. The recommended combination is of bicolor
lespedeza, sericea lespedeza, and game bird mix-
The County Chapter of the Izaak Walton League
will undertake to furnish ail the plant and seed nec-
essary for the first fifty (50) contestants — as deter-
mined by the postmarks on the envelopes submitting
the entry blanks. Arrangements have been made to
have the patches judged by out-of-county conserva-
tionists, so there will be an impartial job.
Prizes are as follows: Ist — a Featherlight Ithaca
Repeater 12-gauge Shotgun (model 37), with 30-inch
barrel and full choke (value: $95), 2nd — a Reming-
ton .22 cal. semi-automatic rifle (model 550), with
500 rounds of .22 long rifle ammunition (value : $50) ,
3rd — a single-shot Wincliester 12-gauge Shotgun
(value: $30), 4th — a Single-shot Stevens 16-gauge
Shotgun (value: $25), 5th — a Fibreglass J. C. Hig-
gins Casting Rod (value: $10), and A Fine Casting
Reel (value: $10). 6th — a Fine Casting Rod (value:
The closing date for entering the contest is May
With March comes springtime, and
with springtime the animal world comes
to life. Now is the time to observe Na-
ture at work. Perhaps the most inter-
esting of the animal life which can be
observed are the amphibians, such as
toads, frogs, and salamanders; for they
can be observed as well in the classroom
as they can in the field. Let's take a look
around and see what we mean.
It is possible to find pools filled with
egg masses of frogs, toads, and salaman-
ders. These egg masses can be collected
in restricted numbers and brought into
the classroom. Small glass jars make
suitable containers for keeping them dur-
ing their incubation period. However,
pond water should be used, rather than
One of the most inexpensive aquar-
iums that can be used in a classroom is
a glass gallon-jar. This jar should be
placed in the shadows so that no direct
sunlight will shine on it. If it is placed
in sunlight the water will become too
warm for the incubation of the eggs.
The hatching and the development of
the young amphibians can easily be ob-
served in the classroom. In many of the
species it is possible to observe the entire
series of changes from the egg to the
tadpole to the frog. Also, the young
salamanders can be carefully watched,
with emphasis on the use of the external
gills in early stages of life.
As soon as the hatching takes place
in the acquarium, the large numbers of
young should be separated into smaller
groups. If this is not taken care of im-
mediately, the majority of the animals
Feeding these tadpoles and young
salamanders is very simple. Tulip leaves
will serve as food. It will be necessary
to peel off the thin layer covering the
leaves to expose the fleshy part of the
leaf. If this type of leaf is not available,
it would be wise to collect stones which
have a coating of algae, and this will
service as food for the growing animals.
It is necessary for tadpoles to scrape
their food from a solid object because
their teeth are located on the outside of
These observations can be carried fur-
ther by actual study of the parents of
the young collected. It is possible to
extend this work into both recognition of
various species and their value to the
citizens of Virginia.
"You look all in today!"
Being an authority on these forms is
not necessary. The Yield Book of Na-
tural History, by E. L. Palmer, will give
a wealth of information concerning these
BIRD OF THE MONTH
The Purple Martin
He is not the earliest to arrive; the
robins have beat him to it, as well as
many of the hardy blackbird family. And
certainly he is no accomplished singer.
But when we hear the well-remembered,
happy "twittering", and look up and see
him and one or two of his fellows circling
in the air. and, watching, we see him
"land " on the box and flirt his wings and
switch his tail. — then we know that
spring is here: the purple martin is back
This bird winters in the great Amazon
Valley of Brazil. In spring migration he
reaches our Gulf Coast about February 1 ;
but it is not until three months later that
he and his fellows are established over
their summer territory, the whole of the
United States and the southern half of
Canada. With us in Virginia we may
look for him after March 15. My earliest
record in Dinwiddle County is March 13.
By this time, of course, starlings are
nesting in the "martin box." Do not
worry; just watch the fun. English
sparrows are harder to dislodge. A pair
may last the season with the martins.
The great enemy of the martin is a
long-continued spell of bad weather.
Wind and rain play havoc with its food
supply (insects), and many young, and
sometimes older ones, starve. Man is
not his enemy. With men the martin
is almost universally popular. Occasion-
ally someone will complain that martins
destroy his honey bees. But the writer
will not soon forget seeing two young
men using purple martins as targets for
their high-powered rifles.
Martins are noisy. But theirs is a
"happy noise." Then one day about the
middle of July you will realize suddenly
that the sounds around the martin box
have ceased. Yes, the birds have gone.
For a few weeks they may be seen feed-
ing over a pond or nesting in long lines
on telephone wires. Possibly you may
find a "roost" of thousands of these
birds. Then they disappear. My own
latest record for this species is the third
week of August. During October and
November they are taking off from our
southern border, crossing back over the
Gulf of Mexico to their winter home in
Watch this month for the first arrivals
of the purple martin.
Commonwealf-h of Virginia
p. O. Box 1642, 7 N. 2nd St., Richmond, Virginia, Tel. 2-7293
BEVERLEY W. STRAS, JR., chairman, Tazewell, Va.
CHARLES D. ANDREWS, Suffolk, Va. DR. E. C. NETTLES, Wakefield, Va.
FRANK P. BURTON, Stuart, Va. DR. WILLIAM T. PUGH, Lynchburg, Va.
WILLIAM C. GLOTH, JR., Arlington, Va. DR. WARREN B. RAINS, Warsaw, Va.
THOS G. HERRING, RFD, Dayton, Va. T. D. WATKINS, Midlothian, Va.
I. T. QUiNN, executive director, Richmond
Evelyn M. Paris, assistant executive director, Richmond
Katherine J. Williamson, secretary, Richmond Lila L. Howard, secretary, Richmond Frances Grant, receptionist, Richmond
Chester F. Phelps, chief, Richmond James E. Thornton, assistant chief, Richmond Marian Wooding, secretary, Richmond
W. P. Blackwell, Box 1 08, Orange
R. H. Cross, Jr., 3142 West Ridge Rd., S.W.
J. W. Engle, Jr., 1605 Vinson St., Staunton
DISTRICT GAME TECHNICIANS
G. A. Gehrken, Box 121, Franklin
Roanoke C. P. Gilchrist, Jr., Bacon's Castle
H. A. Little, Caret
C. H. Shaffer, Box 1 63, Timberlake Rd., Lynchburg
C. H. Perry, Box 281, Tazewel
E. V. Richards, Keezletown
H. J. Tuttle, Toano
V. C. Boone, Speedwell
W. J. Curry, Millboro Springs
G. P. Fisher, Rt. 1, Falling Springs
Acie Ford, Isom
C. G. Higgs, Rt. 1, Shenandoah
R. D. Hodge, Headwaters
C. E. Huffer, Mt. Solon
Charles Jones, West Augusta
J. G. Lightner, Mt. Grove
Bent Medley, New Castle
William Medley, Sugar Grove
J. H. Miller, Jordan Mines
L. F. Oliver, Goldbond
W. W. Ramsey, RFD 1 , Pearisburg
Fred Roop, Rt. 1, Damascus
Joe Rose, Tacoma
F. O. Simmons, Rt. 2, Edinburg
G. B. Smith, Rt. 4, Harrisonburg
C. R. Sparks, Ceres
W. D. Wade, Fordwick
R. C. Webb, Rt. 2, Pulaski
S. W. Williamson, Arcadia
H. R. Woolridge, Star Route, Buena Vista
HAWFIELD EXPERIMENTAL FARM
V. M. Graves, manager, Unionville
L. W. Blankenship, laborer. Orange
G. W. Buller, chief, Richmond
GAME FARM PERSONNEL
Dennis Hart, manager, Cumberland
Wilson Adams, laborer, Cumberland
T. L. Frayser, laborer, Cumberland
Emmett Jones, laborer, Cumberland
Major Mosby, laborer, Cumberland
Manville Wright, laborer, Cumberland
Dean A. Rosebery, assistant chief, Richmond
S. E. Morris, manager, Appomattox
W. C. Newman, manager, Cumberland
Hubert Meadow, laborer, Cumberland
Mamie C. Noble, secretary, Richmond
W. C. Hawley, manager, Waterlick
Robert Brooks, fish culture aide, Waterlick
R. G. Martin, Stuart
FRONT ROYAL FISH HATCHERY
I. D. Wakeman, laborer, Waterlick
R. H. Ramey, laborer, Waterlick
Charles Funk, laborer, Waterlick
T. R. Weaver, laborer, Waterlick
D. L. Shumate, manager, Marion
J. S. Currin, fish culture aide, Marion
H. M. Kirby, fish culture aide, Marion
W. O. Oakes, fish culture aide, Marion
MARION FISH HATCHERY*
Herbert Houlsee, fish culture aide, Marion
Warren Harrington, fish culture aide, Marion
Thomas Medley, fish culture aide, Marion
Ancil Stephens, fish culture aide, Marion
S. C. Thompson, fish culture aide, Marion
W. R. Wolfe, fish culture aide, Marion
H. C. Woods, fish culture aide, Marion
W. L. Hutton, fish culture aide, Marion
W. G. Seaman, manager, Montebello
L. V. Seaman, fish culture aide, Montebello
MONTEBELLO FISH NURSERY
Elmer Seaman, fish culture aide, Montebello
Ezra Carr, laborer, Montebello
J. M. Seaman, laborer, Montebello
Hall Campbell, laborer, Montebello
C. P. Ramsey, manager, Stevensville
N. H. Chinault, fish culture aide, Stevensville
KING AND QUEEN FISH HATCHERY
M. L. Prince, fish culture aide, Stevensville L. H. Wyatt, fish culture aide, Stevensville
G. H. Wyatt, fish culture aide, Stevensville
'Personnel at the Marion Hatchery are transferred from place to place as the need arises.
J. J. Shomon, chief, Richmond
Ann S. Headlee, secretary, Richmond
Robert R. Bowers, chief, publications-publicity
Florence McDaniel, chief, circulation-distribution
Leon G. Kesteloo, chief, audio-visual
Robert E. Merritt, chief, special services
Mildred Curtis, clerk-stenographer
Mary Schutte, clerk-stenographer
Betty Wanderer, clerk-stenographer
Lillian B. Layne, chief, Richmond
Kathleen Lancaster, clerk, Richmond
Lillian B. Wilde, clerk, Richmond
LAW ENFORCEMENT DIVISION
M. Wheeler Kesterson, chief, Richmond
Louise R. Rady, secretary, Richmond
J. W. Francis, Stuart — Southwest
R. O. Halstead, Creeds — Hampton Roads
W. H. Johnson, Arlington — Potomac
Webb Midyette, Ashland — Northwest
I. H. Vassar, Charlotte Court House — Piedmont
J. B. West, Amelia — Tidewater
H. R. Bunch, 129 N. Lexington St., Covington
J. W. Fears, Charlotte Court House
F. W. Hottle, Edinburg
W. M. Howard, 302 E. Spencer St., Culpeper
H. G. King, Disputanta
J. S. Mise, Box 547, Marion
J. P. Monaghan, Box 2151, Lynchburg
C. P. Montgomery, Fine Creek Mills, Powhatan
J. B. Nicholson, P. O. Box 65, Wakefield
W. D. O'Neill, Norton
T. J. Starrett, 134 Gates Ave., P. O. Box 293, Winchester
J. L. Stringer, RFD 3, Fairfax
Ted Ward, Tazewell
COUNTY GAME WARDENS
Accomack — M. J. Doughty, Wachapreague
Accomack — E. C. Cropper, Keller
Albemarle — M. G. Elliott, 318 I 0th St., N. E., Charlottesville
Albemarle — W. R. Napier, North Garden
Alleghany — F. W. Hanks, RFD, Covington
Amherst — T. D. Woods, Agricola
Amelia — L. A. Coleman, Amelia
Appomattox — D. A. Conner, Appomattox
Augusta — C. L. Miller, Deerfield
Augusta — H. I. Todd, Box 446, Staunton
Bath — R. F. Jenkins, Mountain Grove
Bedford — W. W. Shields, Box 79, Bedford
Bland — B. L. Bird, Bland
Botetourt — L. E. Styne, Buchanan
Brunswick — D. L. Young, Warfield
Buchanan — R. A. Smith, Grundy
Buckingham — C. C. Spencer, Guinea Mills
Campbell — P. P. Monaghan, Jr., RFD 5, Box 234, Lynchburg
Caroline — Roland Eagar, Bowling Green
Carroll — R. E. Gardner, Fancy Gap
Charles City — B. L. Adams, Providence Forge
Charlotte — D. L. Tharpe, Drakes Branch
Chesterfield — E. J. Gorman, 824 E. 45th St., Apt. C, Richmond
Clarke — -Donald Levi, Berryville
Craig — C. W. Surber, New Castle
Culpeper — C. H. Robson, Jeffersonton
Cumberland — C. L. Heath, Cartersville
Dickenson — O. D. Kendrick, Isom
Dinwiddie — J. W. Rives, McKenney
Elizabeth City — S. H. Mitchell, Box 487-B, RFD 1, Hampton
Essex — W. E. Ware, Dunnsville
Fairfax — Fred Brown, RFD 3, Box 792, Fairfax
Fauquier — J. K. Douglas, Catlett
Floyd — J. W. West, Rt. 2, Floyd
Fluvanna — W. M. Haden, Kent's Store
Franklin — G. T. Preston, Rocky Mount
Frederick — E. L. Gather, RFD 3, Winchester
Giles — W. T. Jamison, Pembroke
Gloucester and Mathews — S. R. Stanford, Bena
Goochland — S. W. Breed, Manakin
Grayson — W. D. Hampton, Independence
Greene — T. P. Runkle, RFD 1, Stanardsville
Greensville — P. F. Squire, RFD 1, Emporia
Halifax — R. E. Austin, Clover
Halifax — A. E. Cole, RFD, Virgilina
Hanover — W. S. Harris, RFD, Beaverdam
Henrico — C. I. Smith, Jr., 2401 Staples Mill Rd., Richmond
Henry — E. T. Lemons, Box 1, Collinsville
Highland — C. H. Corbett, Vanderpool
Isle of Wight — H. E. Munford, RFD 2, Windsor
James City and York —
King George and Stafford — R. S. Purks, Box 303, Fredericksburg
King and Queen — C. T. Bland, Shanghai
King William — G. H. Meredith, King William
Lancaster — H. H. Pittman, Regina
Lee — E. T. Rasnic, Pennington Gap
Loudoun — T. A. Daniel, Jr., RFD 1, Leesl
Louisa — H. T. Payne, Louisa
Lunenburg — J. R. Bacon, Jr., RFD, Kenbi,
Madison — W. M. Pattie, Jr., Madison
Mathews — (See Gloucester^ .i
Mecklenburg — W, S. Crute, Baskerville
Middlesex — B. U. Miller, Amberg
Montgomery — J. G. Johns, 8 Park St., Cf.
Nansemond — W. S. Rountree, 544 3rd A
Nelson— W. A. Hill, Tyro
New Kent — R. L. Griffith, TunstafI
Norfolk— W. C. Ansell, Jr., 1 033 Living- '
Northampton — E. L. Doughty, Jr., Oyster
Northampton — R. T. Charnock, Eastville :i
Northumberland — S. A. Blackwell, Remd.i
Nottoway — W. C. Irby, Jr., Blackstone ,"
Orange — W. D. Mann, Rhoadsville j
Page — H. W. Keller, Luray
Patrick — F. C. Hylton, Stuart .;
Pittsylvania — P. C. Pickrel, RFD, Gretna'-,
Pittsylvania — J. A. Tramel, RFD, Danvill
Powhatan — McGuire Morris, Jr., Powhat.
Prince Edward — G. L. Cox, Farmville
Prince George — G. R. Foster
Princess Anne — G. C. Fentress, RFD 1, E
Princess Anne — J. A. Saunders, Creeds
Prince William — W. L. Flory, Nokesville
Pulaski — D. T. Vaughn, RFD 2, Pulaski
Rappahannock — C. E. Brown, Sperryville
Richmond — H. L. France, Ethel
Roanoke — G. S. Harmon, Box 365, Salem
Rockbridge — Posie Kemp, Fairfield
Rockingham — W. C. Fawley, Star Route 1
Russell — J. H. Perry, Hansonville
Scott — L. O. Alley, Clinchport
Shenandoah — E. D. Sheetz, Edinburg
Smyth — W. W. Newman, Marion
Southampton — W. E. Lankford, 506 2nd Ave., Franklin
Spotsylvania — P. B. Lewis, Box 74, Fredericksburg
Stafford — (See King George)
Surry — C. N. Hunter, Spring Grove
Sussex — G. A. Hawks, Stony Creek
Tazewell — E. W. Wilson, Tazewell
Warren — J. W. Simpson, Box 180, Front Royal
Warwick and Newport News — P. H. Garrow, Jr., Menchville
Washington — E. S. Yeatts, Meadow View
Westmoreland — F. E. Settle, Montross
Wise — C. B. Bays, P. O. Box 283, Norton
Wythe — R. M. Wolfenden, Jr., 230 1 1th St., Wytheville
York — (See James City)
CITY GAME WARDENS
Danville — T. C. Dameron, 508 Craghead St.
Norfolk — D. A. Robertson, 231 E. Princess Anne Rd.
Norfolk — D. A. Robertson, Jr., 1067 Little Bay Ave.
Petersburg — F. M. Fenderson, 1517 Halifax St.
Portsmouth — N. B. Myers, 2310 Airline Ave.
Richmond — J. H. Hill, 2927 Chamberlayne Ave., Apt. C
Roanoke — G. C. Flippen, Box 161
John Holmes, messenger, Richmond